What is a CNC machine | Parts of CNC machine

CNC machine“, a one of the most popular and vital name in the manufacturing industry. So, What is a CNC machine? and what are the Parts of CNC machine? Here in this article you will get to know every prospect of these.
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Full form of CNC-

CNC stands for Computerized numerically Controlled.

What is a CNC machine ?

A CNC machine can be defined as a computer-controlled machine and the work is done by feeding the the program to it.

Since the operation of the lathe machine or any operation of the hand machine is carried out, where the heat generated between the tool and the work. To avoid this we should put water or any other cool coating to reduce the temperature.

But in the case of CNC machine that water components set automatically and there is no need to supply manually.

The CNC machine operates in only two subjects namely CAD and CAM.

CAD stands for Computer-aided design. This helps you to learn about machine design and machine tools.

CAM stands for Computer-aided manufacturing. This theme is also similar to CAD but talks about production while CAD is deals with design.

Parts of CNC machine

A CNC machine is consists of following parts given below in details:


The bed is a kind of solid parts of the machine because the tool turret moves over the CNC bed lathe, the type of machine can not touch them.


The headstock is the main part of the machine, here the workpiece is adjusted to do the job and also The headstock of the CNC lathe machine has a main engine that drives a large turn.


The tailstock is to provide extra grip on the workpiece. When the operation like knurling, threading has performed, these components are used to hold the working piece.

Tailstock quill:

This is a type of workpiece set between centers.

Footwitch or pedal:

With these pedals, the CNC machinist opens and closes the chuck to hold the part, in the same way the tailstock quill is taken to move forward or reversed.


Chuck rides the main spindle. Here we fix the workpiece.

Control Panel:

The control panel is another key part of the CNC machine where we use to set or supply the program we do on the workpiece.

This is also called the CNC machine brain.

Tool Turret:

The tool is mounted on a tool turret used by the segment machine.

Tool turrets vary in layout and the number of tools that can be mounted.

These are the parts of the CNC machine, now we will discuss about the Parts of CNC system.


• This is installed on a computer with a keyboard. These are the codes used to control the machine.

• The various CNC codes are N Code, G Code, XYZ Code, F code, etc.

Below is a table in which I list all the common codes used in CNC.

Tape Reader:

• This is used as a storage device where we can store a specific machine function.

• Any modification of a program can easily be done by editing the existing program as per your requirement.


• It is also called the machine control unit. It is to read interprets and converts perceived input, that is part program into the desired movement and controls the following functions:

  • To start and stop the machine spindle.
  • Vary the spindle speed accordingly and also it can control the direction of rotation of the spindle.
  • To start and stop the coolant supply.
  • To change the required tools as per requirements.
  • To change the workpiece.
  • To control the feed rate.

• Also, the mini-computer equipped with diagnostic software which can detect any problem and restore the machine accordingly.

Servo system:

The function of the servo system is to receive the control signal from the feedback devices and the set output accordingly (To shaft, tools and other components of CNC machine).

How does a CNC machine work?

The CNC machine operates based on CAD and CAM systems and computer controls.

CAD (Computer-Aided Design) draws software.

Also, CAD software is used to increase designer productivity, improve design quality, improve textual communication, and create a production website.

However, CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing) has two codes such as G-code and M-codes in which all programs are written and typed to perform various functions. (i.e., turning, grooving operation on the lathe).

Here is an example of steps:

• The first step is to, write and Install the component system (G and M code) in the CNC Machine Control Unit.

• Now the whole data process takes place and according to the program prepares the commands and sends them to the operating system.

• The driving system controls the movement and speed of the machine tool.

• The feedback system records the location and speed of the machine tool measurement and sends the response signal to the MCU.

• In the MCU, feedback signals are matched with reference signals and if there are errors, it corrects and sends new signals to the machine tool for optimal performance.

• The display unit is used to view all commands, programs, and other important data.

Types of CNC machine

CNC machines can be divided into the following types:

  1. CNC laser cutting machine
  2. CNC Lathe Machine
  3. CNC Milling Machine
  4. CNC router machine
  5. CNC Plasma Cutting Machine
  6. 5- axis machine
  7. 3-D printer
  8. Pick and place Machine
  9. CNC laser cutting machine:

As the name itself suggests “Laser Cutting” it means that the cutting function is controlled by a laser and the operating code is inserted into the machine running automatically, it is called a CNC laser cutting machine.

This machine is used to cut sheets. Provides a better finish.

Even if you have made a complex design it can be done in this. You just have to feed the system according to it.

The cost of the machine is very high.

The biggest problem it faces is that when machine parts get damaged, it takes time to repair due to the unavailability of the market.

  1. CNC Lathe Machine:

Before proceeding to the CNC Lathe machine, you can read lathe machine in details. (Lathe machine: Introduction, components, types, operations, specification)

Let’s now moves to the CNC Lathe machine.

Full form of CNC-
CNC stands for Computerized numerically Controlled.

• This is widely used as a lathe in modern times due to its fast and accurate operation. It is one of the most advanced types.

• It uses computer programs to control a machine tool. Once the program is installed on the computer according to the system it starts working at high speed and accuracy.

• Even making a customized machine is where the code is set for various functions it can start working without changing the code in the future.

• A less skilled worker can easily use this after performing the initial setup.

• These types of lathes are also used for mass production such as capstan and turret but there is no planned system.

• The parts produced by these lathes are very accurate in tolerance to size.

  1. CNC Milling Machine:

You can also read: Milling and Grinding operation: Methods, types, specifications

• As we know Milling Machine is a process of extracting metal by supplying the work surface through a multi-point rotation cutter.

• This machine is used to make gears similar to Spur gears, and also to drill a working gear, producing gaps.

• The same work is done on CNC Milling by installing the component system in the system.

• A less skilled worker can easily use this after performing the initial setup.

• These types of machines are also used for mass production like capstan and turret but there is no planned supply system.

• The parts produced by this machine are very accurate in tolerance of size.

  1. CNC Router Machine:

It works just as well as other CNC machines such as lathe or Milling.

• The main difference is that it does all the carpentry work such as door engraving, interior and exterior decoration, wooden planks, sign boards, wooden frames, pottery, musical instruments, furniture, and more.

• It Provides a better finish.

• This will be an excellent machine for door design and more.

  1. CNC Plasma Cutting Machine:

• Plasma cutting machine is defined as a process that disconnects electrical equipment using a fast hot plasma jet.

• Although CNC Plasma cutting machine is defined as cutting work is done by a computer-controlled computer program.

• We have learned to cut CNC laser in addition to the big differences between them, one operation being done with the most expensive laser and the other the less expensive plasma and these are portable devices.

  1. 5- axis machine:

• It is a machine with 5 axes in total.

• Initially, it was a 3 axis (X, Y, and Z) cutting of any metal was done on 3 sides but added 2 axes (A, B) which means there are 5 axes complete, works cut and done method 5.

• 5 Axis machine is used to make engraved images.

  1. 3-D Printer:

• The 3D printer is a CNC machine in which the materials are printed layer by layer. The 3D printer works to print buildings and structures.

• The design and drawing is done in the CAD and CAM process and then the 3D Printer works to see the design.

• Pick and place Machine:

This is another good type of machine. Used in industry. Let’s take a simple example.

• The Amazon company has a repository where it stores most of the items. When repairing items by hand it takes a good time to avoid this machine introducing the picking and placement of items.

Advantages of CNC machine

The following are the benefits of having a CNC machine:

• The CNC machine provides the working piece with better accuracy and precision.

• A few workers are needed to help save labor costs.

• You do not need a highly skilled operator.

• Even a skilled worker can use these CNC machines.

• CNC machinery can produce complex designs with the highest accuracy in the shortest possible time.

• The CNC machine has an online editing system, which means that any changes and errors in cut or size scenarios can be easily edited and edited in a data store on a computer without sending the tape to be re-processed.

• The conversion of the unit can be easily done by this machine (SI to Britain or from Britain to SI).

• It can easily diagnose its error, there is special software that makes it easier to solve the problem if the CNC system fails and has the ability to help maintain and repair the system automatically.

• It also helps for safety reasons.

• Low Care Required.

• Minimize setup changes over time.

• CNC machine has high productivity and strength.

• It can work 24 hours a day.

• He is faithful.

Disadvantages of CNC machine

Here are some of the disadvantages of CNC machine:

• Installation costs are high.

• Even the parts of the CNC machine are high.

• In the event of any machine failure a highly skilled worker needs to solve the problem.

• Computer information is required.

• System information is required

Applications of CNC machine

Here are some applications of CNC machine :

• The main use of the CNC machine is to extract metal at a faster rate compared to a conventional milling machine such as a milling machine.

• This also applies to the manufacturing industry.

• This machine is used for automatic extraction of metal in the workplace where another machine such as a lathe, Grinding metal extraction is done by hand.

CNC machine price:

CNC machine are priced according the working and the models. Some of the best are given below:

CNC VMC (Vertical Machining Center) $50,000

CNC HMC (Horizontal Machining Center) $89,000

CNC HBM (Horizontal Boring Mill) $125,000

CNC VTL (Vertical Turret Lathe)

Conclusion :

That’s all from today’s article. Now its time to wrap up this. Hope you all like this information and content. Today we have learnt each and everything about CNC machine. It’s types, Parts, applications, advantages, disadvantages and many more.

If this was helpful to you then kindly do share this with your mates. If you have any queries or suggestions then comment us below or simply contact us through email.


Q. In machining of a workpiece, the material is removed by?

Shearing acting

Q. Feed is measured in units of


Q. CNC machining centres do not include operations like


Q. In CNC systems multiple microprocessors and programmable logic controllers work

In parallel

Q. Which of the following is not the advantage of CNC machines?

Improved strength of the components

Q. In how many ways CNC machine tool systems can be classified?


Q. In part programming, interpolation is used for obtaining _ trajectory.


Q. For CNC machining skilled part programmers are needed?


Q. What is the Full form of CNC?

Computer Numerical Control

Q. The punch tape reader in a CNC machine is?

Input device.

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