Metal Forming Processes pdf

Today, we are here to take you to the manufacturing world. Here we will discuss about Metal Forming Processes, Types and applications of Metal Forming Processes.
There’s nothing in the field of manufacturing industry that can be done without metals or materials.

So, from the engineering perspective, it is quite necessary to understand all the metal forming processes and it’s types and applications. Thus, without wasting any time let’s start the wonderful conversation.

What Is a Metal Forming Process?

The Forming Process also known as Metal Forming is a large collection of production processes in which raw materials are converted into products. In this process, we apply pressures such as tension, compression, cutting, etc. to cripple/deform raw materials. Examples of Forming procedures are metal sheet manufacturing, forging, rolling, extrusion, wire drawing, thread rolling, rotary swagging, and many more.

Classification of Metal Forming Processes:

  1. Bulk Forming

Rolling Process
Extrusion Process
Forging Process
Wire Drawing

  1. Sheet metal Forming

Deep Drawing

  1. Powder Metal Forming

Powder Forging
Powder Injection
Powder Extrusion Moulding

  1. Bulk Construction:

It is One of the most important Metal Forming Processes. This procedure can be used when the metal volume ratio is higher than the surface area. In line with that, the bulk forming process works due to different types of forces. They are shear force, a combination of tensile, and compressive force. Examples of Bulk Forming procedures are listed below.


Rolling is one of the most vital and important processes of forming. It comes under the bulk-forming process. Here in rolling process, it consists of two or more rollers in a combination with the metal plate. In regards to the rolling process, the metal plates are passed between the combination of two or more than two rollers to make the metal plates thin and smooth surface finish.

Alternatively, rollers can be used in the rolling process rotating in the same or opposite directions with respect to another roller.

The main purpose of this Rolling process is to reduce the size (thickness) of the metal particles. In construction procedures, the metal is not removed. Therefore, before the rolling process begins, a small diameter of the metal is taken according to the need, as after the rolling process this width increases due to compression and reduction in size.

• Extrusion:

The extrusion process is very different from other processes. In this process, the metal is heated to high temperatures. The metal is then pressed against the die’s full force.

The die has a space, where the flammable metal flows during the compression of the RAM. Therefore, a proper shape can be done. Besides, in a extrusion process, the metal is so hot that it resembles a liquid as it can flow.

• Forging

Forging is a process in which metal can be heated at very high temperatures. This forging process can be used to give a certain metal shape. It usually works because of the compressive force.

Initially, the metal is heated to a very high temperature. This metal is then placed in a die. After that, the compressive strength is given to the heated metal as the metal can get a shape of die by deformation with the help of the force supplied by the hammer or other part of the metal devices. Therefore, the metal takes its form by conversion.

• Wire Drawing:

It’s kind of an extrusion process, but not quite. Here thread-based (wire) die is used. The workpiece passes the die and takes part of the die to be opened. It is a pulling process.


Squeezing is one of the most useful Metal Forming Processes. In this case, die is used. First, the die must be heated. The molten metal is then placed on one side of the die. Then when the metal is hardened and the other part of the die is placed in the first part of the die and given the force of pressure on it. After solidifying/tightening the metal, it takes as a prepared shape.

  1. Sheet Metal Forming

Another important process of forming is Sheet Metal Forming. This process of making sheets works because of the tensile or shear force. Typically, this energy can be used in Hydraulic presses to produce a product on the sheets but other steps such as squeezing, bending and more are also included in the process. In this process, nothing is added or removed. Examples of this type of molding are bending, deep drawing, shearing etc.

• Bending:

Bending is a process in which an angle is used to compress the compressive force of a metal plate that helps the material to bend at a certain angle. So that the plate can get its desired shape. The shape of the angle usually looked like the English letter “V” or “U”.

• Deep drawing:

In this operation, an hollow cup shape die is used. The die is clamped using an empty handle. In this process, the workpiece (sheet metal) placed over the die and the punch applied force to the workpiece. With this force, sheet metal expanded and filled the hole and taking on the shape of the die.

• Shearing

In this operation, the metal sheet is in the cantilever area, and the punch from the top uses force in the cantilever sheet area. Shearing is a cutting piece of metal work.

Some Other Procedures for Making Metal Sheet

However, when making steel sheets, companies often use one or more of the following construction methods.

• Curling

Curling is a metal sheet forming process used to smooth the sharp or rough edges of a sheet metal.

• Bending

Another common procedure for making metal sheets is bending. Companies often bend metal sheets using a brake press or similar compression machine.


The sheet metal can be ironed to achieve the same thickness. Most aluminum can, for example, be made of iron-based aluminum.

• Laser Cutting

Laser cutting has become a common practice for making metal sheets in recent years. By laser cutting, sheet metal is exposed to a very powerful laser that burns holes in the metal.


The process of metal formation is less commonly known as hydroforming. Like a deep sketch, hydroforming involves stretching spaces over an asset.

• Piercing

Finally, piercing is a metal-making process that involves the use of a punch & dies set to create holes in the metal sheet. The sheet metal is placed between the punch & die.

  1. Powder Metal Forming

These days, the most innovative process is the Power Metal Forming process. In this process, metal powders are used to make products. It is a computer-controlled process. Accordingly, in this process, metal powders are heated/burned under the melting point of the material.

Through this process, the production of any complex structure that can be produced by any other formulation processes can be made. Typically, this type process is used to reduce machining phases such as grinding, polishing etc. It also reduces the production costs.

Examples of Powder Metal Forming Processes are as follows:

• Powder Forging:

As the name implies Powder Forging, that means here we use Powder Metals to find the final product. In this process, the mixed powder mixture is poured into die with a hopper, and pressure is applied using a preform. Usually in order to get a strong bond, we need to heat the Preform.

This process is completed in three steps:

  • The preform is heated, so that the binding can be easily done.
  • Pre-Alloy powder (180–325 µm) is put into the die and pressed by Preform. In this process, we obtain a solid density of 80-85%.
  • After preformed compression, it also passes to Mechanical Pressing, so that we can increase the density to 98-99.5%.

• Powder Injection:

The powder injection process is also called metal injection moulding. In this process, metal powders (<10µm) are mixed with wax or polymer-based binder. The composite mixture clings to the pressure exerted by the screw, and comes out of the dice, then forming it.

• Powder Extrusion Moulding

In this process, hydrostatic pressure forces apply to the metal powder. The dye is suspended on the other side of the active force, so when the force/ energy is applied to the powder, it comes out of the die and takes the shape of die.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Metal Forming Processes:

According to the discussion above, you already have the idea that we can divide the forming process into broad categories i.e. two types of Hot Forming, and Cold Forming. So each has its advantages and disadvantages, so let’s talk about it.

Advantages of the Hot forming process

  • The amount of hardening strain in the process of Hot forming process is low compared to the cold forming process.
  • Due to the heat of the property, the amount of energy required to disable the property is very low in value.
  • The amount of ductility, as well as other mechanical properties present within the material, produced by the Hot forming process is very high.
  • In addition to the above benefits, a small amount of residual stress can be produced by the Hot forming process.

Disadvantages of hot forming process

  • The required temperature is high.
  • In many cases, the biggest mistake that can be made between hot-rolled processes is the poor finish.
  • The accuracy or precision is very low compared to the cold forming process.
  • Besides, bad flexibility is another issue associated with the hot forming process.
  • Poor health cycle and management problem.

In the section above, the pros and cons of the Heat forming process are discussed.

Now, the next section combines the pros and cons of the cold formulation process.

Advantages of Cold Forming Process

  • Heating is not necessary at all in this process.
  • The area that can be found at the end of this process is of the highest quality.
  • Presence of guiding structures.
  • Aging, wear and tear properties are very high.
  • Strength is good in the case of a cold forming process.
  • The main advantage of this process is the neglect of dirt.

Disadvantages of Cold forming process

  • In order to convert an object, a higher amount of energy is required.
  • Strong and high-powered strength is needed to deform an object.
  • Compared to the hot forming process, the ductility level is worse.
  • Severe stress is more common in the case of the cold forming process.
  • The presence of residual stress.

Applications of Metal Forming Processes:

Now look again at the application of the process.
Some of the major performance process applications are the following:

  • Seamless/ Flawless tubes, rods can be made with the help of the above procedure.
  • Turbine rings can be produced in this way.
  • The cement furnace can also be made with the help of this process.
  • Bearings, plates, metal sheets, and various parts of a car can be developed with the help of this process.
  • The missile, parts of the plane are also made by this process.
  • Along with that hinge, bolt, nails can also be built through this process.
  • In addition, agricultural implements, military products are also produced with the help of this process.
  • Furniture, hook, pin, screws can also be made from this process.
  • Windows, doors, and other parts of the car can be improved with the help of the forming process.
  • In addition, the forming process can also be used to improve plastic products.


That’s all from today’s article. Now its time to wrap up this. Hope you all like this information. We all have discussed in detail about Metal Forming Processes, its types, workings, advantages and disadvantages, applications and many more.

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You may also read this – Hot and Cold working of metals | Different processes and its effects


Which of the following components is mainly manufactured by performing metal forging?

Connecting rod

Which of the following metal forming processes performs squeezing out of material through a hole?


Which of the following processes is not the type of bulk forming process in the metal forming?


Which of the following manufacturing processes is mainly considered for producing the components of very high strength?


Which of the following metal forming processes is best suitable for making the wires?


Which of the following components are manufactured by the sheet metal forming process?

Car bodies

Which of the following processes is not the type of metal forming process?

Injection moulding

Which of the following manufacturing processes operates under the influence of external forces?

Metal forming

Which of the following stresses is takes place during performing the wire drawing operation?

Indirect compressive stress

Which of the following can help in determining the behaviour of the material in metal forming?

Stress – strain curve

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