Disc brake and its working principle

Are you very fond of bikes and cars? Then disc brakes is likelihood of you. Here, we are with “Disc brake and its working principle”. Now in current scenario, disc brakes are capturing the each and every automotive marketplaces.
So, stay tuned till end to know each and every prospect of disc brakes like it’s parts, types, working principle, benefits and many more.

What is a disc brake?

A disc brake is a type of brake that uses caliper to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc or “rotor” to create friction. This action slows the rotation of the shaft, like the shaft of a car, in order to reduce its rotational speed or to hold it in place. Moving energy is converted into heat waste to be dispersed. To know Disc brake and its working principle it is very useful.

Hydraulically activated disc brakes are the most commonly used way to brake cars, but disc brake principles apply to almost any rotating shaft. Components include a disc, master cylinder, caliper (consisting of a cylinder and two brakes) on both sides of the disc.

Parts of the disk brake

  1. Wheel hub:

The disc rotor is connected to the wheel hub and rotates with it. The car’s tire is attached to the wheel hub.

  1. Caliper Assembly:

Caliper assembly includes

(i) Brake pad: It makes contact with the rotor disc and due to the friction between the brake pad and the rotor disc the vehicle speed drops and then stops.

(ii) Caliper bracket

(iii) Caliper Frame

(iv) Piston:

It exercises brake force on brake pads when the brake lever is pressed.

(v) Slider PIN:

Slider PIN slides in the hole when applying the brake.

(vi) Dust boots:

Prevent dust from entering the caliper pin or slider pin hole.

  1. Disc Rotor:

It is the rotating part of the disc brake. When the brakes are applied, more heat is produced which can reduce the efficiency of the brakes, so the rotor has drilled exhaust holes that emits heat.

Working principle of a disc brake

• When the brake pedal is pressed, the high-pressure fluid from the main cylinder pushes the piston out.

• The piston pushes the brake pad against the rotating disc.

• As the internal brake pad touches the rotor, the fluid pressure adds extra force and the caliper goes in and pulls the outer brake pad toward the rotating disc and touches the disc.

• Now both brake pads push the rotating disc, a large amount of friction is generated between the pads and the rotating disc and slows the down the vehicle and eventually stops.

• When the brake pad is released, the piston goes inside, the brake pad moves away from the rotating disc. The vehicle starts to move again. Now you will have an idea about Disc brake and its working principle.

Types of disc brake

  1. Single piston:

In the construction of a single piston as in two-wheelers, the brakes are driven by a single piston, attached to the brake caliper. When you press the brake lever, the brake oil pushes the piston causing the brakes to shrink and rub against the disc. The friction between the brake pads and the disc causes the disc to stop rotating, thus stopping the wheel.

When you release the brake lever, the brake pads return to their original position. This creates a gap between it and the disc. So that they again rotate freely. Disc brake and its working principle is now understandable to you.

  1. Twin Piston:

The twin piston design as in cars is almost identical to a single piston, except for two pistons in numbers. In this system, twin pistons push the brakes to apply the brakes. The brake pads are fits to the caliper holding the parts of the brake system together.

When the driver presses the brake pedal, the oil in the brake master cylinder multiplies the hydraulic force sent to the caliper; causing its piston to shrink. The pistons, on the other hand, cause the brakes to contract and rub against the disc. The collision between the brake pads and the disc causes it to stop rotating, thus stopping the wheel.

  1. Twin caliper:

The third type – Twin caliper system; activated by two callipers operating on the same principle of that a single caliper brake system. In this design, there are two calipers instead of one. However, luxury cars with high speeds often use this type of system. This system provides more effective and strengthen brakes.

  1. Ventilated Discs:

Modern cars/ vehicles come with air-tight or ventilated discs. When you apply the brakes, it converts the car’s kinetic energy into heat due to the friction between the brakes and the discs. Ventilated or Airtight discs have spaces or air space that help in passing air to the disc. Thus, it provides cooling and prevents bruising of the brakes.

Advantages of disc brakes

• It is lighter than drum brakes.

• It has better cooling (because the brake area is exposed to the air).

• It provides better resistance to blurring.

• Provides uniform pressure distribution.

• Replacing brake pads is easy.

• By design, they are automatic/ self adjustable brakes.

Disadvantages of disc brakes

• More expensive than drum brakes.

• A high pedal pressure is required to stop the car. This brake system is equipped with a vacuum booster.

• No servo action available.

• It is difficult to attach a proper parking attachment.

Conclusion : Disc brake and its working principle

So, here in this article we have explained you collectively Disc brake and its working principle. In which you learnt all about disc brakes, its type, components, advantages, disadvantages, working procedure etc.
Now, its time to wrap up this presentation. Hope you all like this information. If this was a little bit helpful for you, then kindly do share this with your friends. If you have any queries or suggestions then comment us or simply contact us through email.

FAQ’s :-

When brakes are applied on a moving vehicle; the kinetic energy is converted to?

Heat energy

The following is not a drum brake

Disc brakes

The hand brake of the automobile is usually

External contracting brake

In disc brake, the disc is attached to the


Hydraulic brakes function on the principle of

Pascal’s law

Tandem master cylinder consists of

two cylinders and two reservoirs

Hand brake is applicable to

Only rear wheel

Servo action is to

The amplification of braking forces

The power brake may be exerted by

Electrical energy

The process of removing air from the brake system is known as


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